Marked with thought #2

Mitsulift logo Base Design

The challenge for Base Design was how to turn corporate elevator company, Mitsulift, into a relevant, contemporary brand. While the logo does a great job of capturing the idea, the real strength is in the broader identity.

Australian Design Radio logo

Australian Design Radio was given a clever, Australia-shaped mark by Christopher Doyle & Co. When the radio’s on-air the graphic equaliser moves, returning to the original form when off-air.

Highline logo Pentagram

Originally built for freight trains in the 1930s, The High Line is an elevated rail structure on Manhattan’s West Side that has been turned into the city’s most popular new park. An ideal monogram by Paula Scher, Pentagram.

New Chapter logo Paul Belford

New Chapter is a startup offering word therapy — a form of counselling where participants express themselves through the written word. The symbol, by Paul Belford Ltd, combines a book with a forward-pointing arrow.

The Pregnancy Pause logo

The Pregnancy Pause is a fictitious company created and designed by Mother NY, because maternity leave is a full-time job.

Daily Overview logo Fleet

Inspired by the “Overview Effect” — a sensation that astronauts experience when given the opportunity to look down and view the Earth as a whole — Daily Overview offers a new way to look at the landscape humans have shaped. The D overlooking the O creates a very apt monogram from the now seemingly defunct Brooklyn-based Fleet.

Freedom logo The Chase

Freedom Travel had always had a gull on their logo and they wanted a gull on the new one. The Chase obliged them.

Paws logo Koto

Paws is a personalised dog food delivery service in the UK, with a charming logo designed by Koto.

Bandido logo Magpie

The Bandido coffee brand “channels the Californian counterculture spirit by bucking the system of larger coffee chains and corporates.” The playful mark designed by Magpie is fitting and memorable.

More brands marked with thought.

The World Symbol Festival, 1994

Logo World Symbol Festival

Leading designers from around the world submitted their strongest work for display in a variety of venues, and a number of designers gave talks about their work and the future of logo and identity design.

While there’s not much detail of the event online, the Logo World book was published soon after as a form of historical record of what took place.

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

The first Euro-Logo-Design Award was held in the presence of members of the European Commission, members of the Belgian and Flemish Governments, the mayor of Ostend, the Governor of the province of West-Flanders, representatives from international design organisations, members of the press, and others. The award was presented to designers who were considered pioneers in the field of graphic design, particularly logo design and corporate identity. The ten winners in 1994 were Anton Stankowski, Franco Grignani, Jacques N. Garamond, Josef Muller-Brockman, Paul Rand, Yusaku Kamekura, Stephan Kantscheff, Hermann Zapf, Jan Rajlich sr, and Saul Bass.

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

Logo World Symbol Festival

Speakers at the event included the likes of Félix Beltrán, David Consuegra, Burton Kramer, and Marcello Minale, with design contributions from Alan Fletcher, Paul Rand, Saul Bass, Hermann Zapf, and many others.

Logo World Symbol Festival

“The trademark’s function of clearly indicating the purpose of the enterprise is an important aid in sales. At the same time, it is highly desirable that the mark should also tell something about the size and nature of the enterprise for which it stands. […] A trademark exists to stamp itself indelibly upon the consciousness of the general public. This is the purpose of the corporate image.”

— Yusaku Kamekura

Logo World Symbol Festival

As Paul Ibou was also the founder and president of the International Trademark Center (ITC), he was able to collect an enormous amount of logo submissions from renowned names in the profession. This helped with a range of logo design books Paul went on to publish (Famous Animal Logos 1 & 2, Banking Symbols 1 & 2, Art Symbols, and others).

Logo World Symbol Festival

One of the festival exhibitions was that of Letters as Symbols, pictured above. It was based on one of Paul’s earlier book ideas from 1991.

Thanks to Paul and fellow Belgian designer Christophe De Pelsemaker, the Letters as Symbols book is now available for backing on Kickstarter.

“When talking about logos, they should neither be linked nor limited to a specific culture, but should be understood by people of different cultural backgrounds, worldwide. A logo should be independent of most standards and be accessible to anyone, irrespective of education or level of intelligence. In fact, a logo that is created for a company or organisation is intended to ease visual perception. The simpler the form of the logo, the more effectively it catches the human eye.”

— Paul Ibou

Logo World Symbol Festival

LogoArchive #1

LogoArchive #1

“The difference between digital space and material artefact manifests itself in a number of ways. With the digital landscape being infinite, curation is open to anything with a compelling use of form language between 1950 and 1980. With the finite space of print it takes a more personal approach, so anything that really speaks to me on a personal level, something that has a joy in its metaphor or a sophistication in its abstraction. This first edition draws together some of my favourite animal logos.

LogoArchive #1

“A critical relationship between LogoArchive online and LogoArchive in print is formed by maintaining a white on black distinction, where logo books are typically black on white. This also provided the potential to acknowledge LogoArchive’s new physical context through the uncoated and dyed qualities of Colorplan Ebony, the physical layering of white ink, and binding with black staples.

LogoArchive #1

“It was a challenge to print white on black while avoiding the expense of foil and screen printing. WithPrint did a fantastic digital print job, maintaining sharp edges and making the white on black as white as possible.

LogoArchive #1

“As it’s a small booklet (10pp plus cover), details such as consistent layering of ink through eight passes, carefully trimming the dyed, uncoated paper, and the use of black staples were essential. They help to justify its price point, which, at five pounds, aims to be just a little more than an expensive birthday card, and hopefully sets LogoArchive up for a second edition. I ran 400 and have 100 left. There may be another run later but I want to get on with the next edition.

LogoArchive #1

“Getting the ISBN number was a first for me. I’ve generated barcodes for clients in the past, but never registered as a publisher and requested a number. It’s a fairly straightforward process through Nielsen BookServices, costing £89 for one, or £149 for 10. A barcode was generated using a few online tools and knocked out of a block of white. There is a requirement to submit any publication with an ISBN number to five institutions, one of which is the British library.

LogoArchive #1

“A critical part of LogoArchive in print is its story — its capacity to take something pragmatic, like research and documentation, and give it a personal component. There are a lot of logo books out there, so this mix of story, new mode of delivery, and distinct materiality intends to separate LogoArchive and lay the foundation for an ongoing relationship with readers.”

LogoArchive #1

LogoArchive (featured previously) is a recovery, research, and restoration project by designer Rich Baird. LogoArchive #1 is distributed by Counter-Print, and stocked by Magma Books, magCulture, and Standards Manual.

Update: LogoArchive #2 is now available.

Hobo signs and symbols

Hobo signs and symbols

Hobos were the nomadic workers who roamed the United States, taking jobs wherever they could, and never spending too long in any one place. The Great Depression (1929–1939) was when numbers were likely at their highest, as it forced an estimated 4,000,000 adults to leave their homes in search of food and lodging. Of those, 250,000 were said to be teenagers — the economic collapse had destroyed everything in their young lives. They criss-crossed the country, usually by freight train, jumping into boxcars as trains pulled away from their stops or slowed at bends in the track.

Hobo signs and symbols
Hobo signs displayed at the National Cryptologic Museum, Annapolis Junction.

Finding food was a constant problem, and hobos often begged at farmhouses. If the farmer was generous, the hobo would mark the lane so other hobos would know it was a good place to beg.

Markings would be made on fences, buildings, trees, pavements — anywhere a message could signal help or trouble. In the words of Susan Kare, who designed the original Macintosh icons, “This kind of symbol appeals to me because it had to be really simple, and clear to a group of people who were not going to be studying these for years in academia.”

Hobo signs and symbols
Hobo signs, from Symbol Sourcebook, by Henry Dreyfuss, via bLog-oMotives.

Translations for some commonly used signs:

  • A cross — “angel food” (food served to hobos after a sermon).
  • A triangle with hands — the homeowner has a gun.
  • A horizontal zigzag — a barking dog.
  • A square missing its top line — safe to camp in that spot.
  • A top hat and a triangle — wealth.
  • A spearhead — a warning to defend yourself.
  • A circle with two parallel arrows — get out fast, hobos aren’t welcome.
  • Two interlocked circles — handcuffs (i.e., hobos are jailed).
  • A caduceus symbol — doctor living in the house.
  • A cross with a smiley face in one of the corners — the doctor will treat hobos free of charge.
  • A cat — a kind lady lives here.
  • A wavy line (signifying water) above an X — fresh water and a campsite.
  • Three diagonal lines — not a safe place.
  • A square with a slanted roof (signifying a house) with an X through it — the house has already been “burned” or “tricked” by another hobo.
  • Two shovels — work available (shovels, because most hobos performed manual labour).

The symbols in the photos below were drawn onto a small model of an early-1930s American town.

Hobo signs symbols
Clockwise from top-left: kind lady, judge lives here, good place to catch the train, camp here.
Hobo signs and symbols
Clockwise from top-left: vicious dog, nothing to be gained, water and safe campsite, owners will give to get rid of you.

The number of travelling workers fell dramatically by the 1950s, as Jack Kerouac, no stranger to the hobo life, noted in Lonesome Traveler (1960):

“The American Hobo has a hard time hoboing nowadays due to the increase in police surveillance of highways, railroad yards, sea shores, river bottoms, embankments and the thousand-and-one hiding holes of the industrial night.”

One of the most well-known hobo songs is Big Rock Candy Mountain, first recorded by Harry McClintock in 1928, about a hobo’s idea of paradise. It was used in the opening credits of O Brother, Where Art Thou?

Details via, SSoIH,,, and,, Wikipedia, Riding the Rails (on YouTube).

Identity: Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, by Standards Manual

Chermayeff Geismar Haviv, Standards Manual

Standards Manual is an independent publishing imprint founded in 2014 by designers Jesse Reed and Hamish Smyth. The talented duo are also partners at design consultancy Order, and Jesse kindly took time to answer a few questions about their latest book release.

Why did you decide to produce the Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv (CGH) monograph?

CGH floated the idea when we were working on the EPA Manual reissue last year. We were a little in shock when they mentioned it, but of course we were immediately interested in publishing the title. We’ve been following their work since we were both in university.

How involved were CGH in the production?

The team over at CGH were very involved, including weekly calls with Tom and Sagi up until the day it went to print. Their staff were instrumental in gathering the content and making sure we had everything we needed to get the story straight. They’ve produced an incredible amount of work over the past 60 years and we didn’t wan’t to misrepresent or exclude anything critical to the monograph.

Our design office, Order, handled the design of the book. Hamish and I led the design direction, and everyone in our office helped with the final production.

Chermayeff Geismar Haviv, Standards Manual

How did you decide what print spec to go for?

We always like to include special printing or production techniques with our titles. For NASA it was the silver bag, on this one it was a combination of things like the end papers, but also the cover treatment and the physical size of the book. The cover is particularly nice because it follows Tom and Ivan’s philosophy of “identity as art” — as in, a logo should be just as beautiful by itself regardless of context. To emphasise this aspect, we silkscreened the logo collage on a canvas-like material. Ivan, Tom, and Sagi personally designed the final logo crops that you see on the front and back covers.

Chermayeff Geismar Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff Geismar Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff Geismar Haviv, Standards Manual

Who printed the book? Were there any production challenges? How many copies did you have printed?

We used Die Keure in Bruges, Belgium. Normally, we print at Graphicom in Verona, Italy, and this was the first time that we’ve worked with Die Keure, but they came highly recommended by other publishers and designers. In terms of production, we flew to Bruges to be on press and to make sure all the colour reproductions came out perfectly. There are a lot of brand spot colours that needed to be printed with process inks, so we made sure to closely monitor that aspect.

The print run was for 4,000 copies. That number’s based on a combination of pre-order sales and what’s most economical to print at scale. Now that we have distribution we’re able to calculate projected direct and retail sales through the year. But at the end of the day, you never really know.

Die Keure did a terrific job.

Chermayeff Geismar Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff Geismar Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff Geismar Haviv, Standards Manual

Are there any special finishes you’ll add to the packaging?

This book will simply be shrink-wrapped and shipped in a normal padded box. The cover itself has the impact that we want to display, unlike NASA where some people don’t even take it out of the bag!

The monograph includes written contributions from other designers and writers. Can you share an excerpt?

Sure. Here are the first few paragraphs of the introduction by Alexandra Lange:

When the partners at Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv present a new identity to a client, they like to prepare her first. “We give a lot of warnings,” says Sagi Haviv. By this point, the partners have interviewed employees, collected the marks of competitors, dug into company history, sat, sketched, debated amongst themselves, and checked their picks in the trademark database. They have prepared a presentation that takes the client on a visual journey, from old mark, to half measures, to the shiny new thing. They show her this warning.

They know the client wants to love it.
But that doesn’t always happen right away.
Sometimes she says, “I’m going to need a minute.”
Sometimes he says, “Go ahead, but I don’t want to see it on my letterhead.”
Sometimes he says, “That’s the one.”

Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual
Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual

What’s next for Standards Manual?

We have a new book that will be crowdfunded through Kickstarter. We can’t release the details just yet, but stay tuned to our social media or sign up for the mailing list to hear when it drops. We’re not sure if we’ll release a third title this year, but we definitely have more ideas on the burner. We’re also hard at work building up Order, so we may spend the remainder of 2018 doing just that.

Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv, Standards Manual

Book specifications

308 pages
11.875 × 11.5″ / 302 × 292 mm
Triple, self-coloured endpapers
Three paper stocks
Floating board covers with silkscreen on textured canvas
Black cloth spine with white foil
Printed in Belgium by Die Keure
Cover design by Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv
Photos by Brian Kelley
Published by Standards Manual
Designed by Order

Adrian Frutiger logos, 1960s–70s

Adrian Frutiger, Bremgarten

While the late Swiss type designer Adrian Frutiger (1928–2015) is best known for his renowned typefaces such as Univers, Avenir, and Frutiger, many people are less familiar with the symbols and monograms he designed. Here’s a selection from the sixties and seventies.

The quotes are from Frutiger’s book, Signs and Symbols (PDF via Monoskop), where he talks about the meaning behind basic shapes and their combinations.

Adrian Frutiger logosCentre International de Généralisation, Autoroute Rhone-Alpes, Philippe Lebaud.

“Triangles with a horizontal side form ideal backgrounds for signals (road signs, etc.) because of their symmetry. The triangle with a horizontal base conveys an impression of stability and permanence, like a pyramid.”

Adrian Frutiger logosJacqueline Iribe, Zee, Editions Hermann.

Adrian Frutiger logosCGE Distribution, Tissages Normands Réunis, Bull General Electric.

Adrian Frutiger logosPTT Swiss Post, Sogreah Sogelerg Sedim, Forums.

“The normal cross or plus sign is the absolute embodiment of symmetry. The four right-angled inner spaces located around a central point fix the sign to the paper so strongly that any idea of movement or rotation is impossible.”

“For primitive humans, the circle was certainly of strong symbolic importance due to its association with sun, moon, and stars. Today, it is still associated with wheels and gears of every kind. Without the ability to travel, modern life on the ever-widening area of our daily world would be hardly imaginable. We will therefore use the circle form to establish some differentiation in the psychological effect on the viewer.”

Adrian Frutiger logosNational Institute of Design, Laboratoires Peloille, Scripta.

Adrian Frutiger logosAutoroute du Sud de la France, Druckerei Winterthur, Imprimerie Hofer.

Adrian Frutiger logosPrache de Franclieu, Information et Entreprise, Brancher Frères.

“Two circles arranged vertically evoke the idea of a hierarchy, with upper and lower; the effect of the sign is of a rather precarious balance and it is like a statue or monument.”

Signs and Symbols book, by Adrian Frutiger

Signs and Symbols (PDF) was published in English by Van Nostrand Reinhold (New York), since acquired by Wiley.

More of Adrian Frutiger’s logos on Logobook.

How Paul Rand presented logos to clients

Paul Rand client logo presentation

Mason began, “The trade mark, which in the spacious days before the invention of the corporate image could afford to live in a measure of ornamental luxury, has today become a sharply functional thing, a bright weapon for the attack on the overworked and often sluggish attention of the public. Not only must it serve as the focal point of corporate design programmes: it is often the only medium through which large sectors of the public identify a company and its products at all.

“The design of a trade mark thus becomes an undertaking of the most exacting acuity. Such a mark ‘should be distinctive, memorable, and reflect in some way, however abstractly, the nature of the product or service it represents. Furthermore, it should be practical and easily adapted to a variety of applications. It should be reproducible in one or two colours, in positive and reverse form, and in sizes as large as building signs and as small as, or smaller than, calling cards.’”

At the time the article was written, Paul Rand’s client presentations involved large, custom-made booklets of 20 to 40 pages, given to 25 to 100 top-ranking executives. “Characteristically, Rand avoids what he calls ‘sound, music and lights presentations.’ Believing that ‘graphic designers are really silent salesmen’, he thinks that trade marks should convince by their own impact and quality.”

Paul Rand client logo presentation
Atlas Crankshaft Corporation (1964) and International Business Machines Corporation (1956).
Paul Rand client logo presentation
Ford (1966). “Although the new mark wasn’t adopted, its presentation remains an impressive example of the genre.”

A PDF of the six-page piece can be downloaded from the resources of Seattle-based Rationale. The full magazine issue is available from Graphis.

Related, from the archives, are some photos of the 100-page NeXT presentation that Paul Rand created for Steve Jobs, and a short video of Rand introducing his work to the NeXT team.

Mark Spencer, forensic botanist

Mark Spencer forensic botanist logo

Mark Spencer is a forensic botanist. In other words, he helps police with criminal cases where plant-based evidence can make a difference. His visual identity, designed by London-based Fieldwork Facility, needed to be intelligent, simple, and memorably executed, and part of the challenge was to avoid any insensitivity to the gravity of Mark’s work.

“In forensic botany the main tools at Mark’s disposal are his observational skills and his vast botanical knowledge,” said FF’s Robin Howie, who created the vectorised logo from his photograph of a leaf with good “eye” qualities.

Mark Spencer forensic botanist cards
Mark Spencer forensic botanist logo

When not working in forensics, Mark is a field botanist, public speaker, and TV presenter. To cater to his varied roles, the word “forensics” was omitted from the logo, leaving two phrases in the identity to hint at the different activities — “Plants Hold Secrets” used exclusively for the forensic assignments, with “Plants Tell Stories” used for Mark’s public-facing work.

Mark Spencer forensic botanist

Regarding the photo above, Mark Spencer tweeted, “There is no accident in the choice of this image of brambles and nettles. I often use them when doing forensic casework.”

Fieldwork Facility commissioned photographer Robin Friend to join Mark and them on a walk through the British countryside simulating a forensic investigation. “For Plants Hold Secrets we photographed plants that are often useful in forensic investigations, and for Plants Tell Stories we photographed plants that are non-indigenous to the UK,” said Robin Howie.

Mark Spencer forensic botanist

Mark Spencer forensic botanist envelope
Mark Spencer forensic botanist letterhead

Mark Spencer botanist identity
Mark Spencer botanist identity
Mark Spencer botanist identity

Thoughtful, memorable design by Fieldwork Facility, made even better by how happy the client looks here. Via CR.

The Pixar logo and the hopping desk lamp

Luxo Jr. poster, Pixar

Based in Emeryville, California, just across the Bay Bridge from San Francisco, the American animation studio came to life in 1979 when George Lucas recruited Ed Catmull from the New York Institute of Technology to head Lucasfilm’s Computer Division. Seven years later, in 1986, Steve Jobs bought the Computer Division from George Lucas, establishing the 40-person team as an independent company, Pixar.

The brand name is a made-up noun, like Kodak or Xerox, and was originally invented to name the Pixar Image Computer. Coincidentally, 1986 was also when Steve Jobs hired Paul Rand to design the NeXT logo.

Pixar Animation Studios
Pixar studio gates in Emeryville, California.

One of the first projects Pixar completed was the short film “Luxo Jr.” It was John Lasseter’s official directorial debut, and became the first 3D computer animated film to be nominated for an Oscar, in the category of Best Short Film (Animated).

With that, “Luxo Jr.” became an integral part of the Pixar branding, serving as the mascot and appearing in Pixar’s production logo at the beginning and end of each film. You’ll likely know what happens if you’ve seen a Pixar film — Luxo Jr. hops in from the right, stops beside the letter ‘I’ of PIXAR, and jumps on it until the letter’s flattened, just how the ball was falttened in the original Luxo Jr. film.

The logo animation has differed slightly across the Pixar film catalogue. In Pixar’s WALL-E (2008), for example, the film’s lead character makes an appearance, changing Luxo Jr.’s light bulb.

In other films, everything in the sequence — the bouncing, the fade out, the light turning off — is timed to match whatever music’s playing at the time of the start or end credits. Different variations are listed on the Pixar Wiki.

Pixar characters

According to Lee Unkrich, the animation for the Pixar logo was done by Pete Docter, director of films such as Monsters Inc., Inside Out, and Up.

Pixar Studios lamp and ball
Luxo Jr. on the Pixar campus, photo via Blender Guru.

The logo was later reanimated, presumably for higher definition, but whoever did the work simply mirrored what Pete had already created. I introduced my 4-year-old to Pixar last weekend when we watched Up. She loved it, unsurprisingly. One of Pixar’s best.

Marked with thought

National Theatre logo NT Ian Dennis

National Theatre, London, designed in 1974 by Ian Dennis while at FHK Henrion’s London studio. The slight tweak of the stencil to combine the N and T is a lovely visual trick that stood the test of time.

Canada Snowboard logo

Canada Snowboard, designed in 2017 by Hulse & Durrell. So simple — turn the Canadian maple leaf upside down to form a snow-covered peak, and enclose it in a black diamond to represent “the most badass run on the mountain.”

ENO logo Mike Dempsey

English National Opera (ENO), designed in 1990 by Mike Dempsey while at Carroll Dempsey Thirkell. The logo has since been updated, sadly losing some of the character of that big opera mouth.

Amnesty International logo

Amnesty International, by the late Amnesty member and artist Diana Redhouse. Barbed wire for hopelessness, countered by the burning candle for hope. An ideal representation of what the brand is about.

A G Low Construction logo

A. G. Low Construction, by Rebecca Low (a student at the time). A simple mark that integrates negative space for a visual play on floor plans.

911 Memorial logo

9/11 Memorial, by Landor (New York). No words needed.

BAA logo

BAA (British Airport Authority), designed in 1986 by John David Lloyd while at Lloyd Northover. The three triangles in the symbol clearly suggest something airport related.

Oculus logo

Oculus, a collaboration between Cory Schmitz, Mackey Saturday, Nicolaus Taylor, and Jon Malkemus. The wide ‘o’ works wonderfully as a stylised VR headset.

Centre Pompidou logo

Centre Pompidou, designed in 1974 by Jean Widmer. An idea that captures the defining feature of the building — the escalator in the glass tube that’s visible from the outside.

Talk logo

Talk, by Morvil. Logos using speech marks can be found everywhere, so it’s a tough one to get right. The cleverness here is how it looks like two people talking, and then there’s the smile in the negative space.

Garden Lighting Company logo

Garden Lighting Company, by The Chase. Depending on where a logo will be seen, the execution doesn’t always need to be minimal in appearance, as with this flower / light-shade combination that immediately made me smile. The flower’s interchangeable, too, for some design flexibility.

Eagle Clean logo

Or this for Eagle Clean, by The Partners. Brilliant.

If you push your ideas that little bit further, or turn a thing upside down, or flip a letter back to front, you’ll find that mark that was just waiting to be discovered — something so obvious it makes our work look much easier than it often is.